Containment Policy

Harry Truman

  • President from 1945-1952, prez after FDR died, won 1948 election
  • 1945- A-bomb
  • Truman Doctrine (1947)
    • U.S. will aid countries resisting communism (ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM)
    • Korea war, Vietnam war
    • Compare to Bush Doctrine
  • "X" Article
    • George Kennan of State Department
    • Advocated "a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies"
    • Alarmist tones
    • Outlined Containment as U.S. policy
      • Global, anticommunist, national security policy
  • Executive Order 9835
    • containment on home front
    • Loyalty boards to determine "security risk" of people's beliefs (think 1984—thoughtcrime)
    • Need to prove loyalty to U.S. for govt. job
  • USSR espionage:
    • Verona files- as early as 1943, U.S. intelligence had intercepted messages between Moscow and the U.S.
    • Suggested USSR gave financial support to American Communist Party and that USSR had informants in govt. offices

National Security Act (1947)

  • Established Department of Defense (consolidated Navy and War departments…. "Defense" a propaganda euphemism??? absolutely… 1984…)
  • National Security Council
    • Authority over planning foreign policy
    • NSC 68
      • Kennan resigned; people were misinterpreting his strategy
      • Paul Nitze took his place, reviewed U.S> foreign policy
      • Blueprint for future Cold War foreign policy
      • clash between ideas
      • Warned against negotiations with Soviets. advocated a full-scale offensive
      • Use of covert action, economic pressure, propaganda. military buildup
      • Labeled as defensive
      • Presented as a economic stimulus
  • Established Air Force as separate and equal to Army and Navy
  • Created Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
    • covert covert covert covert covert covert covert…. operations
    • During WWII, OSS had gathered info, but disbanded because Americans were opposed to having a spying agency in peacetime!
    • Cold War fears produced support for spy organization
    • secret funds
    • Encourage anticommunits activities
    • 1949-1952, stations for covert operations expanded from 7 to 47
    • prevent Italian Communist Party from winning elections
    • Bolster anticommunist parties in Franc, Japan, etc… Chile— Allende!
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