Ethnic Middle Class
  • Reestablished homeland institutions
    • Religious, like temples, churches, synagogues
    • Political, like socialist, anarchist
      • Clan Na Gael, to free Ireland from Britain’s rule
    • Social/Fraternal Societies
      • Organized by people from same region, same craft
      • Benefits:
        • “Death benefit,” money for burial
        • Loans
        • Mortgages
        • relaxation
      • German’s Turnevereins: athletic clubs, musical community
  • Small businesses grew
    • Owners working toward economic gain
    • Recognized community’s need for goods, immigrants preferred to buy from those who spoke the same language, history, trust
    • Dry goods stores, food shopts, butcher shops, saloons
    • Whole family involved
  • “Sweatshops,” name for garment manufacture
    • Jewish
    • inadequate lighting, heat, poor ventilation
    • 12-hour workdays, 70 hour work weeks during peak seasons
    • poor pay, no employment security
    • Mostly women and children
  • Small businesses and sweatshops allowed immigrants a chance at middle-class status
    • Amadeo P. Giannini, Italian, used savings from fruit and veggies store to start a bank, the Bank of America
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Company, 1911
    • New York City garment factory
    • No fire escapes
    • Factory owners kept entrances to floors locked
    • Fire broke out and 146 workers died
      • Mostly Jewish and Italian young women- either died in fire or jumped*
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License