Home Front
  • Effect on society
    • much less than effect on Europe— only people who saw fighting were soldiers
    • Biggest campaign for U.S. since Civil War
    • Total commitment
      • Devote agricultural, transportation, industrial and population resources
  • Organization
    • Food Administration
      • Led by Herbert Hoover
      • Efficient system for delivering food to troops and European civilians
    • U.S. Railroad Administration
      • shifted rail system from private to public control
      • make for easy transport of goods from west to east coast
    • War Industries Board
      • supposed to organize industries for production of war materials
      • made war a good investment for businesses
  • Labor
    • Shortage— a working-age men were soldiers
    • Great Migration
      • African Americans move north to work in industrial cities
    • Increased opportunities for work for women, southern whites, Mexicans, African Americans and other minorities
    • Increased powers of unions— companies had to listen to unions in order to keep production up
      • Industrial Democracy
    • National War Labor Board
      • Taft and Gompers of AFL (working together!!!!)
      • to resolve labor disputes
  • Army
    • Draft— Selective Service Act, 1917 (1/8/12 of Constitution)
    • 3 million men drafted, 2 million volunteers
    • Few resisted draft
    • African Americans made up 10% of army
      • Segregated
      • Barred from combat
      • Pershing offered New York's 369th Regiment (all black) to fight for France
      • France awarded all the men the Croix de Guerre, one of France's highest honors, for their fighting
      • DuBois's poem
  • Paying the Bills
    • Raised income taxes
      • top tax bracket 67%!
    • Liberty Bonds
      • advertised a lot
      • popular
  • Social consequences
    • Committee on Public Information
      • anti-German propaganda
    • Immigration Restriction Act, 1917
      • adult immigrants who failed a reading test wouldn't be admitted to the U.S.
    • Anti-German sentiment
      • German Americans were lynched
      • Boston— Beethoven's symphonies were banned, conductor forced to resign
      • Liberty cabbage and liberty sandwiches
      • 18th Amendment
    • Espionage, Sabotage, and Sedition Acts, 1917-1918
      • gave Congress power to silence and imprison dissenters
      • Debs, Schenk, and Gitlow all imprisioned for their beliefs
        • Debs and Gitlow— Socialists, Gitlow preached violent overthrow of government
        • Schenk— “disturbing the draft”
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