Presidents

"Children Having Children Makes Rough Times Worse" ~ Cwod's mnemonic device to remember order of presidents

Cleveland

  • “Babe Ruth”
  • Prez. #22 and #24

Harrison

  • Prez. #23

McKinley

  • President from 1896-1901, reelected 1900
  • Assassinated by Leon Czolgosz
  • Roosevelt V.P. to keep him quiet

Roosevelt

  • President from 1901-1908, reelected 1904
  • Ordered Justice Department to prosecute Northern Securities Company
  • first president to use Sherman Anti-trust Act for its intended purpose
  • “Trust-buster”
  • Didn't believe in breaking up ALL trusts, just punish those who used power improperly
  • United Mine Workers Strike, 1902
    • Wanted 10-20% pay increase
    • 8 hour day
    • Roosevelt invited UMW leaders and mine owners to White House
    • Threatened federal intervention of 10,000 troops if the UMW and mine owners couldn't reach a compromise
  • Dined with Booker T. Washington
  • “Square Deal” campaign slogan in 1904
    • Reform
  • Economy
    • Interstate Commerce Commission power to set railroad shipping rates
    • Hepburn Act, 1906
      • increased ICC's powers of rate review and enforcement
    • Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906
      • inspired by The Jungle
      • protected public from dangerous food and medications
    • Meat Inspection Act, 1906
      • government monitoring of quality and safety of meat
  • Environment
    • Viewed nature as a place to “live strenuously”
    • 5 new national parks, 16 national monuments, 53 wildlife reserves
    • Led to formation of National Park Service, 1916
    • “Conservationist”
      • not focused on national parks
      • ensure the nation's resources were put to efficient use
    • Public Lands Commission in 1903
      • survey & inventory public lands
    • Departments of Interior and Agriculture
      • placed some western lands off-limits for agriculture
      • limited water power development through permits and fees
      • Political favoritism got in the way, so Roosevelt authorized hiring of scientists
    • Pinchot
      • pushed for scientific management
      • convinced Roosevelt to relocate national forests for Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture
      • Controlled National Forest Service
      • system of competitive bidding for lumber on national forest lands
    • Old Guard Republicans
      • attempted to curb Roosevelt's power to create government land reserves
      • Roosevelt acquired another 17 million acres before legislation took effect
  • Post-presidency
    • Decides not to run again, choses Taft as successor
    • After Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy, Roosevelt reenters politics
    • Runs as Progressive candidate in election of 1912
    • “New Nationalism”
      • Strong federal government
        • stabilize economy
        • protect weak
        • restore social harmony
    • Progressive Party, “Bull Moosers”
      • Sweeping regulation of the corporations
      • Extensive protections for workers
      • Sharply graduated income tax
      • Womans suffrage

Taft

  • President from 1908-1912
  • Roosevelt's hand picked successor
  • More conservative than Roosevelt expected
  • Consistently sided against Progressives
  • Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
    • Ballinger reopened 1 million acres of federal land bought by Roosevelt for private commercial use— sold Alaskan coal deposits to private company
    • Pinchot found out, congressional investigation
    • Taft defended Ballinger, Roosevelt sided with Pinchot
  • 1912
    • barely campaigns, certain of defeat
    • Takes republicans RIGHT (conservative)

Wilson

  • President from 1912-1920
  • First southern-born prez. in 50 years.
  • Democrat
    • Anti-Bryan wing
    • “society should be governed by God's moral law”
    • “social consequences of unregulated trusts were against Christian beliefs”
  • had never ran for office before 1910
  • “New Freedom”
    • Temporary concentrated power of government to break up trusts
  • Tariff Reform
    • Underwood-Simmons Tariff, 1913
    • reduced tariff barriers
  • 16th Amendment, 1913
    • government has the right to impose a graduated income tax
  • Federal Reserve Act
    • 12 regional banks
    • controlled by private banks in the region
    • private banks must deposit 6% of assets in Federal Reserve Bank
      • make loans, issue paper currency
    • strengthened nation's financial structure
    • less powerful and centralized than a national bank
  • Changed from “New Freedom” to “New Nationalism”
    • Federal Reserve Act didn't attempt to break up already powerful private banks
    • Federal Trade Commission Act, 1914
      • FTC had powers to collect info on pricing policies, cooperation, and competition of businesses
      • Clayton Antitrust Act
        • would have allowed FTC to persecute trusts
  • Moved democrats LEFT in 1915
    • cared as much about the interests of the powerless as the interests of the powerful
  • Kern-McGillycuddy Act
    • federal workmen's compensation
  • Keating-Owen Act
    • outlawed child labor
  • Adamson Act
    • gave railway workers 8-hour work day
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