Realism
  • Way of thinking that valued detachment, objectivity, and skepticism
    • Seeking truth
    • Constitutional theory
      • Emphasized citizenship, elections, democratic procedures
      • Little to do with way government actually worked
    • Criticized emulation of European styles
    • Nation's “individualism” preventing people from dealing with large organizations
    • Many artists and intellectuals wanted to create “truer, realistic” representations of society
  • Newspapers and Magazines
    • Became the main source of investigative journalism
    • Increase in circulation
      • Circulation increase by 8 times
      • Amount of daily newspapers increased by 4 times
      • 10 cent magazines circulate around 1 million
      • Created jobs
  • Muckrakers
    • Term coined by Theodore Roosevelt
      • Originally to describe those who wrote about scandals only for money
    • Journalists committed to exposing the dark side of American life
      • Prostitution
      • Rockefeller's Oil Company
      • Family disintegration in cities
      • Bribery and corruption in cities
  • Progressivism focused ideas exposed by Realism
    • Emerged among middle-class Americans
      • felt alienated— government should be helping
      • Mainly Protestant
    • William Jennings Bryan
      • Insisted that Christian piety and American Democracy were integrally the same
    • Billy Sunday (major league baseball player)
      • One of the most theatrical preachers
      • Opposed saloons and the liquor trust
      • EXTREMELY ANTI SEMETIC (won't even be on the test!!!)
    • Walter Rauschenbusch
      • Led a movement called the Social Gospel
      • Emphasized duty of Christians to work for the social good
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