Treaty Of Versailles
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  • Armistice declared 11/11/1918
  • Fourteen Points
    • Wilson's idea of “Peace without Victory”
    • included:
      • Reduction of armaments Germany was to pay
      • End to secret treaties— Transparency
      • Freedom of the seas
      • Self-determination for all people
      • League of Nations
  • “Big Four”
    • Wilson
    • Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain
    • Premier Georges Clemenceau of France
      • “God gave us the Ten Commandments, and we broke them. Wilson gives us Fourteen Points. We shall see”
    • Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy
  • Treaty of Versailles included:
    • Surrender of German Territory
      • 11 new nations created
        • Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and eventually Armenia, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Syria
      • Alsace-Lorraine (many German industrial cities) went to France
      • Other territories and colonies went to other European allies and Japan
    • Germany not allowed a military
    • Germany forced to pay reparations for damage
    • Allied Occupation of Germany
    • Germany forced to admit guilt for the war
    • League of Nations established to discuss conflict and prevent war
  • Fight for ratification in the U.S.
    • 2-2-2 of constitution
    • Wilson
      • hoped League of Nations would make up for short-comings of Treaty of Versailles
      • very popular in Europe, “Savior of Humanity”
      • thus, a few Americans wanted to humiliate him and didn't forgive him for his wartime suspension of civil liberties
    • Lodge fought for non-ratification
      • rejected Wilson's believe that every group of people had the right of self-determination and a voice in international affairs
    • “Irreconcilables”
      • group of conservative isolationists and progressives who wanted the U.S. to STAY OUT OF EUROPE
  • Article X
    • gave League right to undertake military actions
    • Lodge claimed it was unconstitutional— Only Congress had the right to declare war
  • Wilson tours the U.S. to get people to call for ratification
    • has a stroke and becomes bed-ridden
    • Edith Wilson takes over her husband's position, in effect
      • 25th Amendment
  • Treaty defeated, never ratified
    • Wilson wouldn't accept any alterations of the Treaty
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